history of tunisia
Tunisia. Farther south, streams are intermittent and largely localized in the form of wadis, which are subject to seasonal flooding and terminate inland in chotts. In Tunisia, women can pass on their names and nationalities to their children. It was made during the reformist ministry of Khayr al-Dīn (1873–77), one of the most effective statesmen of the 19th-century Muslim world. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. 1 - 20 of 46 results. See if your geographic knowledge points north or south in this journey through Africa. Africa’s highest temperature, about 131 °F (55 °C), was recorded in Kebili, a town in central Tunisia. The Glory Days of Carthage. Rome prevailed in the mid-2nd century bce, razed Carthage, and ruled the region for the following 500 years. In time the Carthaginians built an empire in the Mediterranean. A small state with limited resources, Tunisia nonetheless managed to retain considerable autonomy within the framework of the larger empires that frequently ruled it from afar. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The highest mountain, Mount Chambi (Al-Shaʿnabī), located near the centre of the Algerian border, rises to 5,066 feet (1,544 metres), while Mount Zaghwān (Zaghouan), about 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Tunis, reaches 4,249 feet (1,295 metres). On the pretext that Tunisians had encroached on Algerian territory, France invaded Tunisia in 1881 and imposed the Treaty of Bardo, which sanctioned French military occupation of Tunisia, transferred to France the bey’s authority over finance and foreign relations, and provided for the appointment of a French resident minister as intermediary in all matters of common interest. This uprising almost overthrew the regime, but the government ultimately suppressed it through a combination of guile and brutality. March 20, 1956, is Independence Day, when Tunisia gained its independence fromFrance. The humid coastal plain in the east, running between the Gulf of Hammamet and the Gulf of Gabes, where Tunisia’s thriving olive plantations are found, is the most agriculturally productive of these coarse-textured soil areas. By about 8,000 BC human beings lived in what is now Tunisia by hunting and gathering. Scorpions are found in all regions; among dangerous snakes are the horned viper and the cobra. The Phoenicians' expanding regional power brought them to the attention of the Ancient Greeks, and lateâ¦ Independence for Tunisia. QUICK ADD. A Brief History of Tunisia Muslim Conquest. History First Peoples. Tunisia’s accessible Mediterranean Sea coastline and strategic location have attracted conquerors and visitors throughout the ages, and its ready access to the Sahara has brought its people into contact with the inhabitants of the African interior. In the country’s most southerly regions, within the Sahara, even these seasonal streams are rare. The climate can be divided into two major areas, the north, influenced by the Mediterranean, and the south, influenced by the Saharan desert. The kitchen, half of it roofed over and the rest an open courtyard, was a long vertical passage toward the light. The Phoenicians marched into Tunisia around 1100 BC, establishing their capital, Carthage (just north of todayâs Tunis), as the main power in the western Mediterranean by the 6th century. Tunisia toÍonÄ´zhÉ, tyoÍoâ [key], Fr. By the sixth and fifth centuries B.C., the great city-state of Carthage (derived from the Phoenician name for ânew cityâ) dominated much of the western Mediterranean. From the Phoenicians to the French, we've got, (nearly) all of them nailed. Omissions? Grid View Grid. After the death of Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq, his successor, ʿAlī, was forced to introduce administrative, judicial, and financial reforms that the French government considered useful. The most famous people of the ancient world to mark the area of modern-day Tunisia were the Phoenicians, who settled here in the 1st millennium BCE and went on to found their legendary capital of Carthage. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? The final blow to Tunisia’s sovereignty came at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, when Britain acquiesced to France’s control of Tunisia. After achieving independence in 1956, Tunisia pursued a progressive social agenda and sought to modernize its economy under two long-serving presidents, Habib Bourguiba and Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali. Like much of North Africa, Tunisia's history is one littered with conquests that completely changed the country's path. Tunisia became a French protectorate in 1881 and remained under French rule until March 1956 when it gained independence, followed by the promulgation of a new constitution on 1 June 1959. Independence under the Neo-Destour Party (1956–2011), Factional tension, compromise, and a new constitution, Dissatisfaction with the political establishment and the election of Kais Saied. Tunisia was called Ifrīqiyyah in the early centuries of the Islamic period. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Category:History of Tunisia | Military Wiki | Fandom. During the 8th and 9th centuries BC, the Phoenicians became the first of the many civilizations to leave their mark on Tunisia. With the help of Western advisers (mainly French), he created a modern army and navy and related industries. This warmth, joined with the country’s renowned hospitality and cuisine, has contributed greatly to Tunisia’s growing popularity as a destination for tourists from throughout Europe and the Americas. Tunisie, officially Republic of Tunisia, republic (2015 est. Aside from these and from the plains of the Haute Steppe region, where some clay soils of medium fertility may be found, soils in the rest of the country tend to be rocky or sandy. Similarly, the capital, Tunis, blends ancient Arab souks and mosques and modern-style office buildings into one of the most handsome and lively cities in the region. Tunisia is the smallest of the Maghrib states and consequently the most cohesive. These have elevations ranging from about 600 to 1,500 feet (180 to 460 metres) and are crossed by secondary ranges trending north-south. Tunisia’s culture is highly diverse, in part because of long periods of Ottoman and then French rule but also because populations of Jews and Christians have lived among a Muslim majority for centuries. Aḥmad abolished slavery and took other modernizing steps intended to bring Tunisia more in line with Europe, but he also exposed his country to Europe’s infinitely greater economic and political power. Tunisia’s geographic and historical legacy helped prepare it for the shocks it received in the 19th century as a land caught between an expanding Europe and a declining Ottoman Empire. This valley was once the granary of ancient Rome and has remained to this day the richest grain-producing region of Tunisia. Aḥmad Bey, who ruled from 1837 to 1855, was an avowed modernizer and reformer. Its coastline on the Mediterranean Sea made it the subject of many empires throughout history. The history of early Tunisia and its indigenous inhabitants, the Berbers, is obscure prior to the founding of Carthage by seafaring Phoenicians from Tyre (in present-day Lebanon) in the 9th century BC .A great mercantile state developed at Carthage (near modern-day Tunis), which proceeded to dominate the western Mediterranean world. Tunisia's geographical location has meant that many different peoples have entered and dominated the country. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Africa Destinations. The following discussion offers a brief summary of Tunisiaâs early history but mainly focuses on Tunisia since about 1800. Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the Mediterranean.The city was originally known as Kart-hadasht (new city) to distinguish it from the older Phoenician city of Utica nearby. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The first Punic War between Carthage anâ¦ The vast majority of the population was Muslim, with a small Jewish minority. After about 5,000 BC they began farming although they still used stone tools. His reforms negatively affected the already stagnant economy, which led to greater debt, higher taxes, and increased unrest in the countryside. (For a discussion of political changes in Tunisia in 2011, see Jasmine Revolution.). Berber, the earlier language of the Maghrib, survived in Tunisia in only a few pockets, mainly in the extreme south. pop. Occupying the eastern portion of the great bulge of North Africa, Tunisia is bounded on He did, in 1861, proclaim the first constitution (dustūr; also destour) in the Arabic-speaking world, but this step toward representative government was cut short by runaway debt, a problem exacerbated by the government’s practice of securing loans from European bankers at exorbitant rates. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. This is a whole app is very easy to use. The extreme south is largely sandy desert, much of it part of the Great Eastern Erg of the Sahara. Finally, from the 16th to the 19th century, the Ottomans brought their own blend of Asian and European traditions. At night, each locked himself in his room, but in the morning, life was always communal. This book examines the history of Tunisia from the mid-nineteenth century to the present with an emphasis on political, social, economic and cultural developments. In 1830, at the time of the French invasion of Algiers, Tunisia was officially a province of the Ottoman Empire but in reality was an autonomous state. Drainage. From that time until the establishment of the French protectorate in 1881, Tunisian rulers had to placate the larger powers while working to strengthen the state from within. Recovered for Spain in 1535, Tunisia is finally brought under Ottoman control in 1574. The climate of the country, similar to the topography, is greatly varied. During the 1990s the government sponsored the construction of a number of dams to control flooding, preserve runoff, and recharge the water table. That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their â¦ Farther south there is a series of chott (or shaṭṭ; salty lake) depressions. Tunisia is bounded by Algeria to the west and southwest, by Libya to the southeast, and by the Mediterranean Sea to the east and north. Between the limestone peaks of the central Tunisian Dorsale and the mountains of the Northern Tell—which include the sandstone ridges of the Kroumirie Mountains in the northwest that reach elevations of 3,000 feet (900 metres)—and the Mogods, a mountain range running along the deeply indented coastline to the north, lies the Majardah (Medjerda) River valley, formed by a series of ancient lake basins covered with alluvium. Temperatures are moderated by the sea, being less extreme at Sousse on the coast, for example, than at Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān) inland. Other cities include Sfax (Ṣafāqis), Sousse (Sūsah), and Gabès (Qābis) on the fertile coast and Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān) and El-Kef (Al-Kāf) in the arid interior. Independence under the Neo-Destour Party (1956–2011), Factional tension, compromise, and a new constitution, Dissatisfaction with the political establishment and the election of Kais Saied, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Tunisia, Tunisia - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Tunisia - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their first African colony following the Punic Wars against the Carthaginians in 264–146 bce. The most notable immigration was that of the Spanish Moors (Muslims), which began after the fall of Sevilla (Seville), Spain, as a result of the Reconquista in 1248 and which turned into a veritable exodus in the early 17th century. However, enemies from within and European intrigues from without conspired to force him from office. The scheme, however, had no chance of success and was soon abandoned. Though Tunisia went bankrupt in 1869 and an international financial commission—with British, French, and Italian representatives—was imposed on the country, there was one last attempt to reform Tunisia from within and thus avoid complete European domination. About 480 BC the Phoenicians founded Carthage. We'll give it a try. Culture of Tunisia - Wikipedia In 1956, â¦ By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. For a more detailed treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see North Africa. To the south of the Tunisian Dorsale lies a hilly region known as the Haute Steppe (High Steppes) in the west and the Basse Steppe (Low Steppes) in the east. Comparable temperatures at Kairouan are 40 °F (4 °C) in January and 99 °F (37 °C) in August. Is the northernmost point of Africa farther north than the southernmost point of Europe? This provoked an uprising in southern Tunisia during which France attacked and captured Sousse in July 1881, took Kairouan in October, and seized Gafsa and Gabès in November. The area was ruled by a succession of Islamic dynasties and empires until coming under French colonial rule in the late 19th century. In the dry south, moreover, they are often also saline because of excessive evaporation. Continued civil disturbances and corruption prompted the British and French to force the bey to issue the Fundamental Pact (ʿAhd al-Amān; September 1857), a civil rights charter modeled on the Ottoman rescript of 1839. Stone-age to the modern age in two and a half minutes? Relief. Tunisia. Because the principal military threat had long come from neighbouring Algeria, the reigning bey of Tunisia, Ḥusayn, cautiously went along with assurances from the French that they had no intention of colonizing Tunisia. Followers of Generals de Gaulle and Giraud were still unable to unite in a common cause. Explore. $5 - $10; $10 - $25; $25 - $50; Over $50; Formats. Roman Africa, for example, was the most intensively Christianized portion of North Africa, and Ifrīqiyyah was later more quickly and more thoroughly Islamicized. The following discussion offers a brief summary of Tunisia’s early history but mainly focuses on Tunisia since about 1800. List of beys of Tunis. In the 7th century Arab conquerors converted the native Berber (Amazigh) population of North Africa to Islam. Piracy remains the chief purpose and main source of income of all these Turkish settlements along the Barbary coast. Updates? As a result, some 200,000 Spanish Muslims settled in the area of Tunis, in the Majardah valley, and on the Sharīk Peninsula in the north, bringing with them their urban culture and more advanced agricultural and irrigation techniques. Travel Destinations. However they came into conflict with Rome. It can be argued that Tunisiaâs location is strategic because â¦ Friday, January 14, 2011, became a new date and a specialchapter in the periodization of the history of Tunisia since independence,just like March 20, 1956 (Independence Day), or April 9, 1938.¹ This key1. Following the decline of Rome, the region was ruled briefly by the Vandals and then the Byzantine Empire before being conquered by the Arabs in 647 ce. The app cover whole Tunisia history from Mesolithic era to Parliamentary system. Temperatures at Sousse average 44 °F (7 °C) in January and 89 °F (32 °C) in August. The variation in climate leads to the great diversity of ecoregions in Tunisia. Dec 15, 2015 - Lamine Bey, first king and last bey of Tunisia. Travel. The vegetation and animal life of the country are affected by these erratic climatic conditions. Ruins of the ancient baths at Carthage, Tunisia. Yet, Tunisia proved to be as vulnerable economically as it was militarily. The amount of precipitation, all falling as rain, varies considerably from north to south. Brief History of Tunisia: Tunisia is the northern point of Africa. This agreement, known as the Convention of Al-Marsa, was signed in 1883 and solidified French control over Tunisia. The summer is hot and dry in the north, and the winter is mild and consists of frequent rains. The history of Tunisia reveals this rich past where different successive Mediterranean cultures had a strong presence. Saharan influences give rise to the sirocco, a seasonal hot, blasting wind from the south that can have a serious drying effect on vegetation. Kairouan. Tunisia’s security was directly threatened in 1835, when the Ottoman Empire deposed the ruling dynasty in Libya and reestablished direct Ottoman rule. But before reaching this square of pure blue sky, it received, from a multitude of windows, all the smoke, the smells, and the gossip of our neighbours. Ancient Origins articles related to Tunisia in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends. For a more detailed treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see North Africa. Paperback; NOOK Book; Hardcover; Tunisia - History. The population of Tunisia is essentially Arab Berber. Tunisia is one of the â¦ Large plains border the eastern coasts; south of Sousse lies Al-Sāḥil (Sahel) and south of Gabès is Al-Jifārah (Gefara) Plain. The major drainage feature of the north is the Majardah River, the country’s only perennially flowing stream, which cuts the Majardah valley before emptying into the Gulf of Tunis, near the site of ancient Carthage. Slowly this city became stronger. The Phoenicians founded Carthage in Tunisia in the 8th century BC. Thereafter, the vulnerable beylik of Tunis found itself surrounded by two larger powers—France and the Ottoman Empire—both of which had designs on Tunisia. The fighting in Tunisia underlined both the strengths and weaknesses of the Western Alliance and the United States Army. Tunis itself was located near the site of the ancient city-state of Carthage. Founded by the Arabs in the year 670, Kairouan in Arabic means âmilitary campâ. A single major city, Tunis, dominated the countryside both politically and culturally. One name looms above all in Tunisia's history: Carthage. It was a â¦ Land. Popular pages. When the principal minister, Muṣṭafā Khaznadār (who had served from the earliest days of Aḥmad Bey’s reign), attempted to squeeze more taxes out of the hard-pressed peasants, the countryside rose in a revolt (1864). Prices. However, throughout the centuries Tunisia has received various waves of immigration that have included Phoenicians, sub-Saharan Africans, Jews, Romans, Vandals, and Arabs; Muslim refugees from Sicily settled in Al-Sāḥil after their homeland was captured by the Normans in 1091. Muslim Andalusians migrated to the area after having been forced out of Spain during the Reconquista, particularly following the defeat of the Muslim kingdom of Granada in 1492. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). By the beginning of the 19th century, virtually all of its inhabitants spoke Arabic. Book Description. Now a well-heeled northern suburb... Roman Rebirth. This great ethnic diversity is still seen in the variety of Tunisian family names. More acceptable were Aḥmad’s steps to integrate Arabic-speaking native Tunisians fully into the government, which had long been dominated by mamlūks (military slaves) and Turks. Throughout its recorded history, the physical features and environment of the land of Tunisia have remained fairly constant, although during ancient times more abundant forests grew in the north, and earlier in prehistory the Sahara to the south was not an arid desert. Tunisia is situated in the warm temperate zone between latitudes 37° and 30° N. In the north the climate is Mediterranean, characterized by mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers with no marked intervening seasons. As in other countries of this arid region, access to water is a major concern. Search This wiki This wiki All wikis | Sign In Don't have an account?